Lecture 5

Moral Persons in the PIL: General and European Perspective

1.             Basic problems of regulation of legal persons in the international context

1.1.       The concept of a legal person in the field of conflict of laws; “legal person” and “company”

1.2.       The scope of the personal statute of a legal person

1.3.    The problem of recognition of a legal person

1.4.    Connecting factors: the „creation” (incorporation) theory; the statutory seat; the „real” seat; the place of registration

2.             Regulation of the Polish PIL Related to Legal Persons

See Art. 9 § 1 and § 2 of PIL

2.1.       Art. 9 § 1: statutory or real seat?

2.2.       Art. 9 § 2: exception in favour of  the law of the place of business

3.             Conflict Regulation Versus Freedom of Establishment

3.1.       Freedom of establishment under the European law. Cross-border transfer of the seat, cross border mergers and divisions as “establishment” of the company

3.2.       Practical results of the application of the „real seat” theory and freedom of establishment

3.3.       Leading rulings of the ECJ (Daily Mail, 1988; Überseering, 2002; Centros, 2003; Sevic Systems, 2005; Cartesio, 2008) and the results thereof: green light for company immigration (Überseering) and cross-border merger (Sevic); differentiated treatment of company emigration (Cartesio)

See the quoted awards (accessible in the Internet)